Self-Administered Nitrous Oxide (SANO) During Transrectal Prostate Biopsy to Reduce Patient Anxiety and Pain
Nitrous oxide is a well-tolerated inhaled anesthetic that has been used for decades in pediatric and adult populations and is largely viewed as effective and safe. In addition to analgesic effect, nitrous oxide also produces a dissociative euphoria and amnesia that could potentially improve patients' anxiety and experience of cancer care. When used as a single agent at concentrations ≤50%, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classifies nitrous oxide as Minimal Sedation, producing a state in which a patient responds normally to verbal commands, maintains airway reflexes, and spontaneous ventilation. Over the past several decades nitrous oxide has become less common due to concerns of nitrous oxide environmental exposure to the care team. There are now Federal Drug Administration (FDA)-approved systems that allow patient self-administered nitrous oxide (SANO), and importantly, include a scavenger system to eliminate exhaled environmental nitrous oxide. These systems are rapidly being adopted throughout the United States in Urology practices, but to date, there have been no studies evaluating patient outcomes and possible risks with the adjunct use of SANO. This study is a prospective, randomized, controlled trial to assess patient perceived pain and anxiety related to prostate needle biopsy with or without SANO, and the frequency of complications associated with SANO. A secondary aim will be to demonstrate that the SANO at the time of prostate biopsy does not significantly increase burden on Urologist productivity, nor increase the difficulty of operator ease in performing the prostate needle biopsy.