Intraoperative VR for Older Patients Undergoing TKA
The investigators will conduct a three-armed randomized controlled trial with the following aims:
Specific Aim 1: Evaluate whether the use of VR during TKA can facilitate a reduction in intraoperative propofol dose required for patient comfort as compared to music and sham VR + usual care controls.
Hypotheses: Patients in both the VR and music groups will demonstrate reductions in propofol dose compared to sham VR + usual care controls. A reduction in propofol dose between the VR and music group will be smaller in magnitude.
Specific Aim 2: Assess the effect of VR during TKA on patient reported outcomes including overall satisfaction, pain, and anxiety as compared to music and sham VR + usual care controls.
Hypotheses: Patients in the VR group will report significantly higher satisfaction and better control of pain and anxiety than those in the music group and usual care group.
Specific Aim 3: Explore the potential effects of VR during TKA on other key secondary outcomes of perioperative efficiency, postoperative cognition, and functional recovery.
Hypotheses: Patients in the VR group will have shorter post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) length of stay as compared to sham VR + usual care controls. The effect of VR on postoperative delirium, postoperative cognitive decline, postoperative opioid use and functional recovery will be exploratory endpoints.